Safety and Feasibility of a Novel Transnasal Cooling Device to Induce Normothermia in Febrile Cerebrovascular Patients

Neeraj Badjatia, Nidhi Gupta, Stephanie Sanchez, Joseph Haymore, Hemantkumar Tripathi, Rushil Shah, Casey Hannan, Harikrishna Tandri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Inducing normothermia with surface cooling temperature modulating devices (TMDs) is cumbersome and often associated with significant shivering. We tested the safety and feasibility of a novel transnasal evaporative cooling device to induce and maintain normothermia in febrile patients following ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Methods: A single-center study utilizing the CoolStat® transnasal cooling device was used to achieve core temperature reduction in mechanically ventilated stroke patients with fever (T ≥ 38.3 C) refractory to acetaminophen by inducing an evaporative cooling energy exchange in the nasal turbinates thru a high flow of dehumidified air into the nasal cavity and out through the mouth. Continuous temperature measurements were obtained from tympanic and core (esophageal or bladder) temperature monitors. Safety assessments included continuous monitoring for hypertension, tachycardia, and raised intracranial pressure (when monitored). Otolaryngology (ENT) evaluations were monitored for any device-related nasal mucosal injury with a pre- and post-visual examination. Shivering was assessed every 30 min using the Bedside Shivering Assessment Scale (BSAS). Duration of device use was limited to 8 h, at which time patients were transitioned to routine care for temperature management. Results: Ten subjects (median age: 54 years, BMI: 32.5 kg/m2, 60% men) were enrolled with normothermia achieved in 90% of subjects. One subject did not achieve normothermia and was later refractory to other TMDs. Median baseline temperature was 38.5 ± 0.1 C, with a reduction noted by 4 h (38.5 ± 0.1 vs 37.3 ± 0.8, P < 0.001) and sustained at 8 h (38.5 ± 0.1 vs 37.1 ± 0.7, P = 0.001). Time to normothermia was 2.6 ± 1.9 h. The median BSAS was 0 (range 0–1) with only 4 episodes necessitating meperidine across 76 h of study monitoring. No treatment was discontinued due to safety concerns. ENT evaluations noted no device-related adverse findings. Conclusions: Inducing normothermia with a novel transnasal TMD appears to be safe, feasible and not associated with significant shivering. A multicenter trial testing the ability of the CoolStat to maintain normothermia for 24 h is currently underway.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)500-507
Number of pages8
JournalNeurocritical care
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • Normothermia
  • Shivering
  • Targeted temperature management
  • Transnasal cooling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology


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