Safety and Efficacy of Apitegromab in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy Types 2 and 3: The Phase 2 TOPAZ Study

Thomas O. Crawford, Basil T. Darras, John W. Day, Sally Dunaway Young, Tina Duong, Leslie L. Nelson, Doreen Barrett, Guochen Song, Sanela Bilic, Shaun Cote, Mara Sadanowicz, Ryan Iarrobino, Tiina J. Xu, Janet O'Neil, José Rossello, Amy Place, Nathalie Kertesz, George Nomikos, Yung Chyung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Currently approved therapies for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) reverse the degenerative course, leading to better functional outcome, but they do not address the impairment arising from preexisting neurodegeneration. Apitegromab, an investigational, fully human monoclonal antibody, inhibits activation of myostatin (a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth), thereby preserving muscle mass. The phase 2 TOPAZ trial assessed the safety and efficacy of apitegromab in individuals with later-onset type 2 and type 3 SMA. METHODS: In this study, designed to investigate potential meaningful combinations of eligibility and treatment regimen for future studies, participants aged 2-21 years received IV apitegromab infusions every 4 weeks for 12 months in 1 of 3 cohorts. Cohort 1 stratified ambulatory participants aged 5-21 years into 2 arms (apitegromab 20 mg/kg alone or in combination with nusinersen); cohort 2 evaluated apitegromab 20 mg/kg combined with nusinersen in nonambulatory participants aged 5-21 years; and cohort 3 blindly evaluated 2 randomized apitegromab doses (2 and 20 mg/kg) combined with nusinersen in younger participants ≥2 years of age. The primary efficacy measure was mean change from baseline using the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale version appropriate for each cohort. Data were analyzed using a paired t test with 2-sided 5% type 1 error for the mean change from baseline for predefined cohort-specific primary efficacy end points. RESULTS: Fifty-eight participants (mean age 9.4 years) were enrolled at 16 trial sites in the United States and Europe. Participants had been treated with nusinersen for a mean of 25.9 months before enrollment in any of the 3 trial cohorts. At month 12, the mean change from baseline in Hammersmith scale score was -0.3 points (95% CI -2.1 to 1.4) in cohort 1 (n = 23), 0.6 points (-1.4 to 2.7) in cohort 2 (n = 15), and in cohort 3 (n = 20), the mean scores were 5.3 (-1.5 to 12.2) and 7.1 (1.8 to 12.5) for the 2-mg/kg (n = 8) and 20-mg/kg (n = 9) arms, respectively. The 5 most frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events were headache (24.1%), pyrexia (22.4%), upper respiratory tract infection (22.4%), cough (22.4%), and nasopharyngitis (20.7%). No deaths or serious adverse reactions were reported. DISCUSSION: Apitegromab led to improved motor function in participants with later-onset types 2 and 3 SMA. These results support a randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial of apitegromab in participants with SMA. TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03921528). CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that apitegromab improves motor function in later-onset types 2 and 3 spinal muscular atrophy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e209151
JournalNeurology
Volume102
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 12 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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