Low testosterone levels are common in both men and women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may contribute to loss of lean body mass and AIDS wasting. Causes of low testosterone levels are complex and may include chronic illness, HIV infection and its complications, medications used to treat HIV and opportunistic diseases, and normal aging-related declines. In the majority of studies addressing the use of testosterone treatment in HIV-infected patients, testosterone has been found to help prevent loss of lean body and muscle mass. Whether the combination of exercise and testosterone is more effective in preventing loss of lean body mass than either therapy alone is not yet clear and warrants further study. In addition to its effects on body composition, testosterone treatment results in improved mood and libido in HIV-infected women and increased bone mineral density in HIV-infected men. Testosterone may thus make a valuable contribution to the treatment of HIV-infected individuals.
- Body composition
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
- Lean body mass
- Sexual function
ASJC Scopus subject areas