Robotics in Spine Procedures

Gordon Mao, Nicholas Theodore

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Robotic spine surgery has evolved significantly in the past 20 years since the original introduction of the da Vinci surgical system and the Mazor SpineAssist, the first dedicated spine surgery system. Today, multiple commercial systems on the market have been cleared by the FDA for use in the US. In addition to the original intention of these systems to automate and make safer some of the challenging steps in spinal instrumentation, such as pedicle screws placement, modern robotic systems have integrated seamlessly with other advances in surgical technology, such as computer-assisted navigation, to assist and expand the existing capabilities of the surgeon. Current systems also provide new avenues to facilitate the current healthcare economic trend toward minimally invasive operations that can fulfil the clinical goals of spinal surgery while reducing the operative time, blood loss, postoperative incisional pain, and patient recovery times. The increasing adoption of available systems into both private practice and academic settings, along with the rising case volumes, have provided consistent clinical data points to support the safety, accuracy, and versatility of robotic systems in surgical procedures for degenerative, oncologic, and traumatic spinal pathologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRobotics in Neurosurgery
Subtitle of host publicationPrinciples and Practice
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9783031083808
ISBN (Print)9783031083792
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Computer-assisted navigation
  • da Vinci
  • ExcelsiusGPS
  • Mazor X
  • Minimally invasive surgery
  • Pedicle screw
  • Robotic spinal surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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