This chapter describes how advances in needle design, modeling, planning, and image guidance make it possible to steer flexible needles from outside the body to reach specified anatomical targets not accessible using traditional needle insertion methods. Steering can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including tip-based steering, lateral manipulation, and applying forces to the tissue as the needle is inserted. Models of these steering mechanisms can predict needle trajectory based on steering commands, motivating new preoperative path planning algorithms. These planning algorithms can be integrated with emerging needle imaging technology to achieve intraoperative closed-loop guidance and control of steerable needles.
ASJC Scopus subject areas