Risk and protective factors for HIV among orphans and non-orphans in Tanzania

Kristin Mmari, Annie Michaelis, Kagemlo Kiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The objectives of this study were to identify risk and protective factors for engaging in unsafe sex among orphans and non-orphans and to explore whether risk and protection differs by gender and orphan status. The study was carried out in Kisesa ward, in the Mwanza region of Northwest Tanzania. A combination of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data from girls and boys as well as from the female caregivers of orphans. Findings revealed that among young people who reported having unsafe sex, those who were female orphans were more likely to state that they 'had to have sex' to acquire food and clothing for their households. Caregivers believed that many young people who engage in sexual-risk behaviours do so because they are not provided with adequate supervision and moral guidance. The study suggests that programmes may need to target both girls and young women and their caregivers and create access to education and decent work opportunities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)799-809
Number of pages11
JournalCulture, Health and Sexuality
Issue number8
StatePublished - Nov 2009


  • HIV
  • Orphans
  • Protective factors
  • Risk
  • Tanzania

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Risk and protective factors for HIV among orphans and non-orphans in Tanzania'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this