Rhinologic disease and its impact on sleep: a systematic review

Jacob Fried, Erick Yuen, Andraia Li, Kathy Zhang, Shaun A. Nguyen, David A. Gudis, Nicholas R. Rowan, Rodney J. Schlosser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Rhinologic disease can be responsible for systemic symptoms affecting mood, cognition, and sleep. It is unclear whether sleep disturbance in specific rhinologic disorders (chronic rhinosinusitis [CRS], rhinitis, and nasal septal deviation [NSD]) is an obstructive phenomenon or due to other mechanisms. In this review we examine the impact of CRS, rhinitis, and NSD on objective and subjective sleep outcome metrics and draw comparisons to normal controls and patients with known obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: A systematic review of 4 databases (PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) was performed. Studies reporting on objective (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI], respiratory disturbance index [RDI], oxygen nadir) and subjective (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [EpSS], Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI], Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS]) sleep parameters and disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs; 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test [SNOT-22], Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire [RQLQ], Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation [NOSE]) were included. Results: The database search yielded 1414 unique articles, of which 103 were included for analysis. Baseline PROMs were at the high end of normal to abnormal for all 3 conditions: EpSS: CRS (9.8 ± 4.0), rhinitis (9.7 ± 4.3), and NSD (8.9 ± 4.6); and PSQI: CRS (11.0 ± 4.5), rhinitis (6.1 ± 3.7), and NSD (8.6 ± 3.5). Objective measures demonstrated a mild to moderate OSA in the studied diseases: AHI: CRS (10.4 ± 11.5), rhinitis (8.6 ± 8.8), and NSD (13.0 ± 6.9). There were significant differences when compared with reported norms in all measured outcomes (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Sleep quality is impacted by rhinologic (CRS, rhinitis, NSD) disease. There is likely a mild obstructive component contributing to poor sleep, but other contributing factors may be involved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1074-1086
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Forum of Allergy and Rhinology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021


  • nasal obstruction
  • nose diseases
  • rhinitis
  • sleep
  • systematic review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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