Review and status report of pediatric left ventricular systolic strain and strain rate nomograms

Massimiliano Cantinotti, Shelby Kutty, Raffaele Giordano, Nadia Assanta, Bruno Murzi, Maura Crocetti, Marco Marotta, Giorgio Iervasi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Interest in strain (ε) and strain rate (SR) for the assessment of pediatric left ventricular (LV) myocardial function has increased. However, the strengths and limitations of published pediatric nomograms have not been critically evaluated. A literature search was conducted accessing the National Library of Medicine using the keywords myocardial velocity, strain, strain rate, pediatric, reference values, and nomograms. Adding the following keywords, the results were further refined: neonates, infants, adolescents, range/intervals, and speckle tracking. Ten published studies evaluating myocardial velocities, ε, or SR nomograms were analyzed. Sample sizes were limited in most of these studies, particularly in terms of neonates. Heterogeneous methods—tissue Doppler imaging, two- and three-dimensional speckle tracking—were used to perform and normalize measurements. Although most studies adjusted measurements for age, classification by specific age subgroups varied. Few studies addressed the relationships of ε and SR measurements to body size and heart rate. Data have been generally expressed by mean values and standard deviations; Z scores and percentiles that are commonly employed for pediatric echocardiographic quantification have been never used. Reference values for ε and SR were found to be reproducible in older children; however, they varied significantly in neonates and infants. Pediatric nomograms for LV ε and SR are limited by (a) small sample sizes, (b) inconsistent methodology used for derivation and normalization, and (c) scarcity of neonatal data. Some of the studies demonstrate reproducible patterns for systolic deformation in older children. There is need for comprehensive nomograms of myocardial ε and SR involving a large population of normal children obtained using standardized methodology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)601-612
Number of pages12
JournalHeart Failure Reviews
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 8 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Children
  • Echocardiography
  • Myocardial strain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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