Retinal and choroidal manifestations of HIV/AIDS

J. Fernando Arévalo, Rafael A. García, Nikolas J.S. London, Emmett T. Cunningham, Rubens Belfort, William R. Freeman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The human immunode ficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has continued despite the advent of new antiviral therapies; this is responsible for an increase in the number of patients with this entity and its survival. The majority of ocular manifestations of HIV infection involve the posterior segment of the eye. Prior to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), retinal microvasculopathy and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis accounted for more than 80% of the ocular complications in HIV-positive patients. To date, HIV disease and CMV retinitis have become chronic diseases. Many challenges remain to be addressed. HAART has indeed decreased the incidence of some ophthalmic problems, such as CMV retinitis, and it has brought with it new challenges, such as immune recovery uveitis (IRU). Ocular disorders associated with HIV disease remain important problems in the world, despite HAART, and increasingly are more signi ficant and frequent. The approach to diagnosis and management of different pathological presentations at the posterior pole is very important.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRetinal and Choroidal Manifestations of Selected Systemic Diseases
PublisherSpringer New York
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9781461436461
ISBN (Print)9781461436454
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013


  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
  • Acute retinal necrosis
  • B-cell lymphoma
  • Candida vitritis and retinitis
  • Cryptococcal chorioretinitis
  • Cytomegalovirus retinitis
  • HIV microvasculopathy
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy
  • Human immunode ficiency virus
  • Immune recovery uveitis
  • Mycobacterium choroiditis
  • Necrotizing herpetic retinitis
  • Ocular toxoplasmosis
  • Pneumocystis choroiditis
  • Syphilitic retinitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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