Results of Norwood's operation for lesions other than hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Marshall L. Jacobs, Jack Rychik, John D. Murphy, Susan C. Nicolson, James M. Steven, William I. Norwood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


Norwood's operation provides satisfactory palliation for neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The dominant physiologic features of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, ductal dependency of the systemic circulation and parallel pulmonary and systemic circulations, are shared by a multitude of other less common congenital heart malformations. Theoretically, these should be equally amenable to palliation by Norwood's operation. Between January 1990 and June 1994, 60 neonates with malformations other than hypoplastic left heart syndrome underwent initial surgical palliation by Norwood's procedure. Diagnoses included single left ventricle with levo-transposition of the great arteries (12); critical aortic stenosis (8); complex double-outlet right ventricle (8); interrupted aortic arch with ventricular septal defect and subaortic stenosis (7); ventricular septal defect, subaortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta (7); aortic atresia with large ventricular septal defect (6); tricuspid atresia with transposition of the great arteries (6); heterotaxy syndrome with subaortic obstruction (3); and other (3). There were 10 hospital deaths and 50 survivors (83% survival). After the introduction of inspired carbon dioxide therapy into the postoperative management protocol (1991), 42 of 47 patients survived (89% survival). Mortality was independent of diagnosis and essentially the same as that for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. With minor technical modifications, Norwood's operation provides satisfactory initial palliation for a wide variety of malformations characterized by ductal dependency of the systemic circulation in anticipation of either a Fontan procedure or a biventricular repair. (J THORAC CARDIOVASC SURG 1995;110:1555-62).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1555-1562
Number of pages8
JournalThe Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1995
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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