Reprogramming the tumor microenvironment: tumor-induced immunosuppressive factors paralyze T cells

Annie A. Wu, Virginia Drake, Huai Shiuan Huang, Shih Chi Chiu, Lei Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

131 Scopus citations


It has become evident that tumor-induced immuno-suppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment play a major role in suppressing normal functions of effector T cells. These factors serve as hurdles that limit the therapeutic potential of cancer immunotherapies. This review focuses on illustrating the molecular mechanisms of immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment, including evasion of T-cell recognition, interference with T-cell trafficking, metabolism, and functions, induction of resistance to T-cell killing, and apoptosis of T cells. A better understanding of these mechanisms may help in the development of strategies to enhance the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Immunosuppression
  • Immunosuppressive factors
  • Immunotherapy
  • T cells
  • Tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Oncology


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