Reproducibility of global electrical heterogeneity measurements on 12-lead ECG: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Kazi T. Haq, Katherine J. Lutz, Kyle K. Peters, Natalie E. Craig, Evan Mitchell, Anish K. Desai, Nathan W.L. Stencel, Elsayed Z. Soliman, João A.C. Lima, Larisa G. Tereshchenko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Vectorcardiographic (VCG) global electrical heterogeneity (GEH) metrics showed clinical usefulness. We aimed to assess the reproducibility of GEH metrics. Methods: GEH was measured on two 10-s 12‑lead ECGs recorded on the same day in 4316 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (age 69.4 ± 9.4 y; 2317(54%) female, 1728 (40%) white, 1138(26%) African-American, 519(12%) Asian-American, 931(22%) Hispanic-American). GEH was measured on a median beat, comprised of the normal sinus (N), atrial fibrillation/flutter (S), and ventricular-paced (VP) beats. Spatial ventricular gradient's (SVG's) scalar was measured as sum absolute QRST integral (SAIQRST) and vector magnitude QT integral (VMQTi). Results: Two N ECGs with heart rate (HR) bias of −0.64 (95% limits of agreement [LOA] -5.68 to 5.21) showed spatial area QRS-T angle (aQRST) bias of −0.12 (95%LOA −14.8 to 14.5). Two S ECGs with HR bias of 0.20 (95%LOA −15.8 to 16.2) showed aQRST bias of 1.37 (95%LOA −33.2 to 35.9). Two VP ECGs with HR bias of 0.25 (95%LOA −3.0 to 3.5) showed aQRST bias of −1.03 (95%LOA −11.9 to 9.9). After excluding premature atrial or ventricular beat and two additional beats (before and after extrasystole), the number of cardiac beats included in a median beat did not affect the GEH reproducibility. Mean-centered log-transformed values of SAIQRST and VMQTi demonstrated perfect agreement (Bias 0; 95%LOA −0.092 to 0.092). Conclusion: GEH measurements on N, S, and VP median beats are reproducible. SVG's scalar can be measured as either SAIQRST or VMQTi. Significance: Satisfactory reproducibility of GEH metrics supports their implementation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)96-104
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Electrocardiology
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • Global electrical heterogeneity
  • QRS-T angle
  • Reproducibility
  • Spatial ventricular gradient
  • Vectorcardiogram

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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