Renal ph mapping using chemical exchange saturation transfer (cest) mri: Experimental protocol

Kowsalya Devi Pavuluri, Lorena Consolino, Dario Livio Longo, Pietro Irrera, Phillip Zhe Sun, Michael T. McMahon

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is recognized as one of the premier methods for measuring pH with this environmental variable expected to be an excellent biomarker for kidney diseases. Here we describe step-by-step CEST MRI experimental protocols for producing pH and perfusion maps for monitoring kidney pH homeostasis in rodents after administering iopamidol as contrast agent. Several CEST techniques, acquisition protocols and ratiometric approaches are described. The impact of length of acquisition time on the quality of the maps is detailed. These methods may be useful for investigating progression in kidney disease in vivo for rodent models. This chapter is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This experimental protocol is complemented by two separate chapters describing the basic concepts and data analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages17
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)
  • Contrast agent
  • Iopamidol
  • Kidney
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Mice
  • Rats
  • Responsive contrast agent
  • pH imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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