Renal ph imaging using chemical exchange saturation transfer (cest) mri: Basic concept

Dario Livio Longo, Pietro Irrera, Lorena Consolino, Phillip Zhe Sun, Michael T. McMahon

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been actively explored in the last several decades for assessing renal function by providing several physiological information, including glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, tissue oxygenation and water diffusion. Within MRI, the developing field of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) has potential to provide further functional information for diagnosing kidney diseases. Both endogenous produced molecules as well as exogenously administered CEST agents have been exploited for providing functional information related to kidney diseases in preclinical studies. In particular, CEST MRI has been exploited for assessing the acid-base homeostasis in the kidney and for monitoring pH changes in several disease models. This review summarizes several CEST MRI procedures for assessing kidney functionality and pH, for monitoring renal pH changes in different kidney injury models and for evaluating renal allograft rejection. This chapter is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This introduction chapter is complemented by two separate chapters describing the experimental procedure and data analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages16
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Acute kidney injury
  • Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)
  • Iopamidol
  • Ischemia–reperfusion injury
  • Kidney
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Mice
  • Rats
  • Renal damage
  • pH

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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