Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been actively explored in the last several decades for assessing renal function by providing several physiological information, including glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, tissue oxygenation and water diffusion. Within MRI, the developing field of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) has potential to provide further functional information for diagnosing kidney diseases. Both endogenous produced molecules as well as exogenously administered CEST agents have been exploited for providing functional information related to kidney diseases in preclinical studies. In particular, CEST MRI has been exploited for assessing the acid-base homeostasis in the kidney and for monitoring pH changes in several disease models. This review summarizes several CEST MRI procedures for assessing kidney functionality and pH, for monitoring renal pH changes in different kidney injury models and for evaluating renal allograft rejection. This chapter is based upon work from the COST Action PARENCHIMA, a community-driven network funded by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, which aims to improve the reproducibility and standardization of renal MRI biomarkers. This introduction chapter is complemented by two separate chapters describing the experimental procedure and data analysis.