Reliability and validity of the french version of the tobacco craving questionnaire

Ivan Berlin, Florence Vorspan, Edward G. Singleton, Dominique Warot, Christine Notides, Stephen J. Heishman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objectives: (1) To assess the factorial structure, reliability and validity of the French language version of the Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (TCQ), a multidimensional, self-report instrument evaluating tobacco craving, to allow its use in French-speaking populations. (2) To compare the two different language versions of the same instrument in 2 independent samples from 2 cultures in 2 distinct time periods. Methods: The French TCQ was administered to 226 current cigarette smokers after at least 2 h of abstinence. Results: Despite the substantial difference in population characteristics between the French and American samples of smokers, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the French version was best described by a 4-factor solution, similar to the original English version. Reliability estimates were 0.83, 0.79, 0.69 and 0.66 for the French and 0.82, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.48 for the English version for 'emotionality' (factor 1), 'expectancy' (factor 2), 'compulsivity' (factor 3) and 'purposefulness' (factor 4), respectively. The 4 factors accounted for 11.6, 17.1, 9.0, and 9.5% of the total variance in emotionality, expectancy, compulsivity, and purposefulness, respectively, for the French compared to 14.2, 12.5, 14.4 and 5% of the total variance for the English version, respectively. Conclusion: The French version of the TCQ is as valid and reliable instrument as the original English version and assesses the same 4 dimensions of craving for tobacco.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)62-68
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Addiction Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Self-report questionnaire, multidimensional
  • Smokers
  • Tobacco craving

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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