Reinforcement-based therapy: 12-Month evaluation of an outpatient drug-free treatment for heroin abusers

Hendree E. Jones, Conrad J. Wong, Michelle Tuten, Maxine L. Stitzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


This controlled study examined the efficacy of reinforcement-based therapy (RBT) for producing enhanced abstinence outcomes over 12 months in opioid-dependent patients exiting a brief residential detoxification. Patients were randomly assigned upon completing their medically managed taper (i.e., detoxification) to RBT (N = 66) or usual care (N = 64) referral to community treatment programs. The 6-month RBT program offered an array of abstinence-based incentives including rent payment for recovery housing, program-led recreational activities and skills training for procuring employment. RBT produced significantly higher self-report and urinalysis-confirmed rates of abstinence from opioids and cocaine relative to usual care at 1 (42% versus 15%) and 3 (38% versus 17%) months during treatment but not at 6 or 12 months after enrollment. The RBT but not the usual care group showed significant increases in the number of days worked and the amount of legal income earned at 3, 6 and 12 months. The results of this randomized study suggest that an intensive reinforcement-based therapy that includes abstinence-based recovery housing is a promising approach; however, further research is needed to determine the role of treatment intensity and the specific efficacy of RBT's component parts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)119-128
Number of pages10
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2005


  • Detoxification
  • Drug abuse
  • Opioid, Cocaine, Aftercare
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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