Regulation of Gene Transcription by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer composed of HIF-1? and HIF-1? subunits that is present in all metazoan species. The expression and activity of the HIF-1? subunit are highly regulated, most notably by O2-dependent hydroxylation events involving prolyl and asparaginyl residues. HIF-1 binds to hypoxia response elements and activates the transcription of target genes. Over 200 HIF-1 target genes encoding proteins have been identified; among these are genes encoding transcription factors (including both sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins and chromatin-modifying proteins), which lead to secondary transcriptional regulatory cascades. Genes encoding microRNAs are also regulated by HIF-1, leading to indirect effects on messenger RNA stability and protein translation. HIF-1? has also been shown to interact with several other transcription factors and function as a coactivator or corepressor. HIF-1 mediates adaptive responses to hypoxia that are systemic, such as increased erythropoiesis, as well as responses that are cell autonomous, such as regulation of the balance between glycolytic and oxidative metabolism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Biological Chemistry
Subtitle of host publicationSecond Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9780123786319
ISBN (Print)9780123786302
StatePublished - Feb 15 2013


  • Autophagy
  • Erythropoiesis
  • Metabolism
  • Mitochondria
  • Oxygen
  • Prolyl hydroxylation
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Respiration
  • Transcription
  • Ubiquitination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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