Regional anaesthesia techniques for carotid surgery: The state of art

Alessandra Ciccozzi, Chiara Angeletti, Cristiana Guetti, Joseph Pergolizzi, Paolo Matteo Angeletti, Roberta Mariani, Franco Marinangeli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose: This review will analyse some aspects of regional anaesthesia (RA) for carotid endarterectomy (CEA), a surgical procedure which requires a strict monitoring of patient's status. RA remains an important tool for the anaesthesiologist. Some debates remain about type and definition of regional anaesthesia, efficacy and safety of the different cervical block techniques, the right dose, concentration and volume of local anaesthetic, the use of adjuvants, the new perspectives: ultrasonography, the future directions. Methods: A literature search was performed for journal articles in English language in the PubMed Embase and in The Cochrane Library database, from January 2000 to December 2013. The electronic search strategy contained the following medical subject headings and free text terms: local anaesthesia versus general anaesthesia for endarterectomy, superficial and deep cervical block, complications of cervical nerve block, ultrasound guidance of superficial and deep cervical plexus block. Conclusions: The gold standard for RA will be achieved after overcoming a number of limitations by a more extensive use of ultrasonography, by combining general and regional anaesthesia, including conscious anaesthesia, by defining the appropriate volume, concentration and dosage of local agents and by addition of adjuvants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)175-183
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Ultrasound
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2014


  • Carotid surgery
  • Cervical plexus
  • Local anaesthesia
  • Ultrasonography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Internal Medicine


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