Reduction of measurement noise in a continuous glucose monitor by coating the sensor with a zwitterionic polymer

Xi Xie, Joshua C. Doloff, Volkan Yesilyurt, Atieh Sadraei, James J. McGarrigle, Mustafa Omami, Omid Veiseh, Shady Farah, Douglas Isa, Sofia Ghani, Ira Joshi, Arturo Vegas, Jie Li, Weiheng Wang, Andrew Bader, Hok Hei Tam, Jun Tao, Hui Jiuan Chen, Boru Yang, Katrina Ann WilliamsonJose Oberholzer, Robert Langer, Daniel G. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), used by patients with diabetes mellitus, can autonomously track fluctuations in blood glucose over time. However, the signal produced by CGMs during the initial recording period following sensor implantation contains substantial noise, requiring frequent recalibration via finger-prick tests. Here, we show that coating the sensor with a zwitterionic polymer, found via a combinatorial chemistry approach, significantly reduces signal noise and improves CGM performance. We evaluated the polymer-coated sensors in mice as well as in healthy and diabetic non-human primates, and show that the sensors accurately record glucose levels without the need for recalibration. We also show that the coated sensors significantly abrogated immune responses, as indicated by histology, fluorescent whole-body imaging of inflammation-associated protease activity and gene expression of inflammation markers. The polymer coating may allow CGMs to become standalone measuring devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)894-906
Number of pages13
JournalNature biomedical engineering
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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