This report describes reconstructions of complex thoracic defects with myocutaneous and muscle flaps that were modified by several recent refinements of flap design. These refinements comprise a second generation of myocutaneous and muscle flaps, which have substantially increased versatility and extended applications, as compared with the originally described flaps. These refinements include the following: (1) segmentally split latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major flaps, which transfer only one muscle segment as the flap and leave other segments of the same muscle in situ to preserve motor function; (2) pectoralis major =fasciocutaneous flaps, which are extended by abdominal skin and fascia to provide longer, larger flaps; (3) reversed pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi flaps, which are supplied by secondary, distal vascular pedicles that permit flap use when the primary vascular supply is interrupted; and (4) island vascular pedicle muscle flaps, which allow intercostal passage for reconstruction of intrathoracic defects and cavities. The anatomic bases for these flap refinements are described, and the advantages provided are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine