Recalled maternal lifestyle behaviors associated with anti-müllerian hormone of adult female offspring

Allison A. Eubanks, Carrie J. Nobles, Micah J. Hill, Alan H. DeCherney, Keewan Kim, Lindsey A. Sjaarda, Neil J. Perkins, Aijun Ye, Jessica R. Zolton, Robert M. Silver, Enrique F. Schisterman, Sunni L. Mumford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) is an established marker of ovarian reserve that decreases with age. Though the pool of ovarian follicles is established during fetal development, impacts of in utero exposures on AMH are uncertain. Thus, we sought to evaluate associations of in utero exposures with AMH of adult daughters with a prospective cohort study of adult daughters at university medical centers. Women noted their mother's reported use of diethylstilbestrol (DES), vitamins, tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine during pregnancy, and their mother's occupation during pregnancy. All participants were reproductive age women (18–40 years) enrolled in the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction (EAGeR) trial. Serum AMH concentrations were measured at baseline prior to conception and categorized using clinical guidelines. Multinomial regression models estimated associations between each exposure and high (>3.5 ng/mL) and low (<1.0 ng/mL) versus normal AMH (1.0−3.5 ng/mL), adjusting for participant's age, mother's age, mother's history of fertility treatment, and mother's use of vitamins. In 1202 women with available data, maternal caffeine use was associated with an increased risk of low AMH, compared to normal (relative risk [RR] 1.90, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 3.30). Vitamins were associated with an increased risk of high AMH compared to normal (RR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.24, 3.00). Other exposures were not associated with AMH concentrations in offspring. Maternal caffeine and vitamin use during pregnancy may be associated with ovarian reserve in adult offspring, highlighting the potential importance of pregnancy lifestyle on the reproductive health of daughters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)75-81
Number of pages7
JournalReproductive Toxicology
StatePublished - Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Anti-müllerian hormone
  • Caffeine use
  • Intergenerational effects
  • Vitamins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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