Real-time robotic airway measurement: An additional benefit of a novel steady-hand robotic platform

Christopher R. Razavi, Francis X. Creighton, Paul R. Wilkening, Joseph Peine, Russell H. Taylor, Lee M. Akst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: Describe the secondary capability of a robotic system to provide real-time measurements of airway dimensions with high fidelity. Methods: Seven unique phantoms of laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) were modeled using a computer-aided design tool and were three dimensionally printed. These stenoses were of different dimensions and orientations, and some were purposefully oblique. The dimensions of the stenoses were then measured with the novel Robotic ENT (Ear, Nose, and Throat) Microsurgery System (REMS; Galen Robotics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) because it is capable of tool position memory in three dimensional (3D) space. Five participants (two laryngologists, two otolaryngology–head and neck surgery residents, one neurotology fellow) measured each axis of stenosis (anteroposterior, lateral, and craniocaudal) three times for each of the seven stenosis phantoms. These measurements were then compared to the known design dimensions. Mean magnitude of error (MOE) and interrater reliability (IRR) using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were then calculated. Results: Mean MOE and standard deviation for all measurements was 0.306 ± 0.247 mm. Mean MOE was 0.374 ± 0.292 mm, 0.300 ± 0.237 mm, and 0.244 ± 0.185 mm for the anteroposterior, lateral, and craniocaudal dimensions of stenosis, respectively. Eighty-two percent of all measurements had MOE < 0.5 mm. ICC was 0.945 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.847–0.989), 0.995 (95% CI: 0.984–0.999), and 0.993 (95% CI: 0.987–0.999) for anteroposterior, lateral, and craniocaudal dimensions, respectively, indicating excellent agreement among participants. Conclusion: The REMS can be used to reliably and accurately measure airway dimensions in 3D regardless of the orientation of stenosis. This ability may be easily extrapolated to the measurement of any airway lesion during laryngotracheal surgery. Level of Evidence: 4 Laryngoscope, 129:324–329, 2019.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)324-329
Number of pages6
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2019


  • 3D-printing
  • Robotic surgery
  • airway modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


Dive into the research topics of 'Real-time robotic airway measurement: An additional benefit of a novel steady-hand robotic platform'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this