Real-time detection of seven phases of gait in children with cerebral palsy using two gyroscopes

Ahad Behboodi, Nicole Zahradka, Henry Wright, James Alesi, Samuel C.K. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A recently designed gait phase detection (GPD) system, with the ability to detect all seven phases of gait in healthy adults, was modified for GPD in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A shank-attached gyroscope sent angular velocity to a rule-based algorithm in LabVIEW to identify the distinct characteristics of the signal. Seven typically developing children (TD) and five children with CP were asked to walk on treadmill at their self-selected speed while using this system. Using only shank angular velocity, all seven phases of gait (Loading Response, Mid-Stance, Terminal Stance, Pre-Swing, Initial Swing, Mid-Swing and Terminal Swing) were reliably detected in real time. System performance was validated against two established GPD methods: (1) force-sensing resistors (GPD-FSR) (for typically developing children) and (2) motion capture (GPD-MoCap) (for both typically developing children and children with CP). The system detected over 99% of the phases identified by GPD-FSR and GPD-MoCap. Absolute values of average gait phase onset detection deviations relative to GPD-MoCap were less than 100 ms for both TD children and children with CP. The newly designed system, with minimized sensor setup and low processing burden, is cosmetic and economical, making it a viable solution for real-time stand-alone and portable applications such as triggering functional electrical stimulation (FES) in rehabilitation systems. This paper verifies the applicability of the GPD system to identify specific gait events for triggering FES to enhance gait in children with CP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2517
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Cerebral palsy (CP)
  • Functional electrical stimulation (FES)
  • Gait analysis
  • Gait event
  • Gait pathology
  • Gait phase detection (GPD)
  • Motion capture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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