Readability of spine-related patient education materials from leading orthopedic academic centers

Justine H. Ryu, Paul H. Yi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Study Design. Cross-sectional analysis of online spine-related patient education materials from leading academic centers. Objective. To assess the readability levels of spine surgery-related patient education materials available on the websites of academic orthopedic surgery departments. Summary of Background Data. The Internet is becoming an increasingly popular resource for patient education. Yet many previous studies have found that Internet-based orthopedicrelated patient education materials from subspecialty societies are written at a level too difficult for the average American; however, no prior study has assessed the readability of spine surgery-related patient educational materials from leading academic centers. Methods. All spine surgery-related articles from the online patient education libraries of the top five US News &World Report-ranked orthopedic institutions were assessed for readability using the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) readability test. Mean readability levels of articles amongst the five academic institutions and articles were compared. We also determined the number of articles with readability levels at or below the recommended sixth-or eight-grade levels. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of readability assessment were assessed. Results. A total of 122 articles were reviewed. The mean overall FK grade level was 11.4; the difference in mean FK grade level between each department varied significantly (range, 9.3-13.4; P<0.0001). Twenty-three articles (18.9%) had a readability level at or below the eighth grade level, and only one (0.8%) was at or below the sixth grade level. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were both excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 1 for both). Conclusion. Online patient education materials related to spine from academic orthopedic centers are written at a level too high for the average patient, consistent with spine surgeryrelated patient education materials provided by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and spine subspecialty societies. This study highlights the potential difficulties patients might have in reading and comprehending the information in publicly available education materials related to spine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E561-E565
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Academic centers
  • Education materials
  • Flesch-Kincaid readability test
  • Health literacy
  • Internet education
  • Orthopedic education
  • Patient education
  • Readability
  • Spine disorder
  • Spine surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Clinical Neurology


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