Racial Disparities in Short-Stay and Outpatient Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: 13-year Trend in Utilization Rates and Perioperative Morbidity Using a National Database

Kawsu Barry, Kevin L. Mekkawy, Suresh K. Nayar, Julius K. Oni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background:The objective of this study was to assess racial and ethnic disparities in short-stay (< 2-midnight length of stay) and outpatient (same-day discharge) total joint arthroplasties (TJAs). We aimed to determine (1) whether there are differences in postoperative outcomes between short-stay Black, Hispanic, and White patients and (2) the trend in utilization rates of short-stay and outpatient TJA across these racial groups.Methods:This was a retrospective cohort study of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). Short-stay TJAs done between 2008 and 2020 were identified. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and 30-day postoperative outcomes were assessed. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess differences between racial groups in minor and major complication rates, as well as readmission and revision surgery rates.Results:Of a total of 191,315 patients, 88% were White, 8.3% were Black, and 3.9% were Hispanic. Minority patients were younger and had greater comorbidity burden when compared with Whites. Black patients had greater rates of transfusions and wound dehiscence when compared with White and Hispanic patients (P < 0.001, P = 0.019, respectively). Black patients had lower adjusted odds of minor complications (odds ratio [OR], 0.87; confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.98), and minorities had lower revision surgery rates in comparison with Whites (OR, 0.70; CI, 0.53 to 0.92, and OR, 0.84; CI, 0.71 to 0.99, respectively). The utilization rate for short-stay TJA was most pronounced for Whites.Conclusion:There continues to persist marked racial disparities in demographic characteristics and comorbidity burden in minority patients undergoing short-stay and outpatient TJA procedures. As outpatient-based TJA becomes more routine, opportunities to address these racial disparities will become increasingly more important to optimize social determinants of health.Level of Evidence:III, retrospective cohort study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E788-E797
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Volume31
Issue number19
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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