Racial differences in risk factors for kidney stone formation

Anna L. Zisman, Fredric L. Coe, Andrew J. Cohen, Christopher B. Riedinger, Elaine M. Worcester

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background andobjectives Incidence of kidney stone disease is rising. It isnot knownwhether mechanisms of stone formation differ across racial groups. Our objective was to identify differing lithogenic risk factors across racial groups in idiopathic nephrolithiasis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted a retrospective cohort study evaluating metabolic risk factors in black and age-matched white idiopathic stone formers at our tertiary referral center. We compared serum and urine metabolic risk factors pre-and post-treatment across racial groups using analysis of covariance. Generalized linear modeling was used to build regression models for risk of stone formation in both groups. Results Among 117 black and 172 white stone formers, urine volume was lower in black stone formers (1.4±0.8 versus 2.0±0.8 L/d, P<0.001). Urine calcium was lower in black stone formers (116±70 versus 217±115 mg/d, P<0.001). Supersaturations for calcium oxalate were similar among the groups, whereas calcium phosphate supersaturation was higher in white stone formers, and uric acid supersaturation was higher in black stone formers. Electrolyte free water clearance was significantly lower in black stone formers (207±780 versus 435±759 ml/d, P=0.02). In the subgroup of 77 black patients and 107 white patients with post-treatment evaluations, urine volume rose significantly and similarly in both groups. Urine sodium was unchanged in whites but increased in blacks by 40 mmol/d (95% confidence interval, 32 to 48 mmol/d). Electrolyte free water clearance remained lower in black stone formers (385±891 versus 706±893 ml/d, P=0.02). Post-treatment supersaturations were similar across the groups except for calcium phosphate, which improved with treatment in whites. Conclusions Black stone formers have lower 24-hour urine calcium excretion and urine volume. Increases in urine volume with treatment were associated with increased solute, but not free water, excretion in black stone formers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1166-1173
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 7 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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