Quantification of Cerebellar Crowding in Type I Chiari Malformation

Dipankar Biswas, Maggie S. Eppelheimer, James R. Houston, Alaaddin Ibrahimy, J. Rajiv Bapuraj, Richard Labuda, Philip A. Allen, David Frim, Francis Loth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study was focused on a semi-automated morphometric analysis of the cerebellum in the mid-sagittal plane as an alternative to tonsillar descent alone in the evaluation of Chiari malformation type 1 (CMI) patients. Morphometric analyses of posterior fossa structures were performed on mid-sagittal MRI images of 375 individuals (females, > 18 years, 235 CMI and 140 healthy controls). Twenty-six parameters including linear, angular and area measurements together with non-dimensional ratios were calculated. Eighteen parameters were found to be significantly different between CMI and control subjects. Smaller posterior cranial fossa (PCF) area in CMI subjects was attributed to a smaller PCF area anterior to the brainstem. The cerebellar area was found to be larger in CMI subjects as compared to controls (15.1%), even without inclusion of the tonsillar area below the foramen magnum (FM) (8.4%). The larger cerebellar area in CMI subjects was due to cranial–caudal elongation of the cerebellum, predominately below the fastigium. The cerebrospinal fluid spaces below the FM were smaller in CMI subjects as compared to controls. Overall, greater cerebellar crowding was identified in CMI subjects relative to healthy controls. These observations may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of CMI in adult female patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)731-743
Number of pages13
JournalAnnals of biomedical engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 15 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • MRI
  • Morphology
  • Posterior cranial fossa
  • Tonsillar position

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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