Psychometric Evaluation of the Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire

Heather L. Gelhorn, Ebony Dashiell-Aje, Michael G. Miller, Leonard R. DeRogatis, Adrian Dobs, Allen D. Seftel, Stanley E. Althof, Meryl Brod, Dennis A. Revicki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Introduction The Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire (HIS-Q) is a patient-reported outcome measurement designed to comprehensively evaluate the symptoms of hypogonadism and to detect changes in these symptoms in response to treatment. Aim To conduct item analysis and reduction, evaluate the psychometric properties of the HIS-Q, and provide guidance on interpreting the instrument score. Methods A 12-week observational, longitudinal study of hypogonadal men was conducted. Participants completed the HIS-Q every 2 weeks. Blood samples were collected to evaluate testosterone levels. Participants also completed the Aging Male's Symptoms Scale, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Short Form-12 Health Survey, and the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Sexual Activity, Satisfaction with Sex Life, Sleep Disturbance, and Applied Cognition Scales (at baseline and weeks 6 and 12). Clinicians completed the Clinical Global Impression of Severity and Change measurements and a clinical form. Main Outcome Measures Individual item performance was evaluated using descriptive statistics and Rasch analyses. Reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), validity (concurrent and know groups), and responsiveness were assessed. Results In total, 177 men participated in the study (mean age = 54.1 years, range = 23–83). The original 53-item draft HIS-Q was reduced to 28 items; the final instrument included five domains (sexual, energy, sleep, cognition, and mood) with two sexual subdomains (libido and sexual function). For all domains, test-retest reliability was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.70), construct validity was good (|r > 0.30| for all comparisons). Known-groups validity was demonstrated for all HIS-Q domain scores, subdomain scores, and the total score as measured by the Clinical Global Impression of Severity, and total testosterone level at baseline (P < .05 for all comparisons). All domains and subdomains were responsive to change based on patient-rated anchor questions (P < .05 for all comparisons). Conclusion The final 28-item HIS-Q is reliable, valid, and responsive. The HIS-Q is suitable for inclusion in future clinical trials to help characterize the effects of testosterone replacement therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1737-1749
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Sexual Medicine
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016


  • Hypogonadism
  • Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire
  • Patient-Reported Outcome
  • Psychometric Properties
  • Reliability
  • Responsiveness
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Endocrinology
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Urology


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