Proton Pump Inhibitors and Kidney Disease—GI Upset for the Nephrologist?

Stephanie M. Toth-Manikowski, Morgan E. Grams

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Widely regarded as safe and effective, PPIs are among the most commonly used medications in the world today. However, a spate of observational studies suggest an association between PPI use and adverse events, including infection, bone fracture, and dementia. This review details evidence linking the use of PPI therapy to the development of kidney disease, including early case reports of acute interstitial nephritis and subsequent large observational studies of AKI, CKD, and ESRD. The majority of studies showed higher risk of kidney outcomes among persons prescribed PPI medications, with effect sizes that were slightly higher for AKI (∼2- to 3-fold) compared with CKD and ESRD (1.2- to 1.8-fold). Although observational pharmacoepidemiology studies are limited by the possibility of residual confounding and confounding by indication, many of the described studies conducted rigorous sensitivity analyses aimed at minimizing these biases, including new-user design, comparison to similar agents (e.g., histamine2 receptor antagonists), and evaluation for a dose response, with robust results. Given the widespread use of PPIs, even a small effect on kidney outcomes could result in large public health burden. Timely cessation of PPI therapy when there is no clear indication for use might reduce the population burden of kidney disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)297-301
Number of pages5
JournalKidney International Reports
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2017


  • acute kidney injury
  • chronic kidney disease
  • proton pump inhibitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Nephrology


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