Projection flow imaging by bolus tracking using stimulated echoes

T. K F Foo, W. H. Perman, C. S O Poon, J. T. Cusma, J. C. Sandstrom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Previous investigators have employed the concept of bolus tracking using either spin echoes or gradient echoes. In this paper we introduce two methods of bolus tracking using planar- and volume-selective stimulated echoes. The planar method employs a selective 90° rf pulse which tags all spins in a particular plane. At a time τ1 later, a nonselective 90° rf pulse is employed, followed after a time τ2, by another nonselective rf pulse. Only spins which experience all three rf pulses form a stimulated echo at time τ1 after the third rf pulse. A balanced pair of flow-compensated dephasing (crusher) gradients further ensures that the stimulated echo is due only to the effect of all three rf pulses while minimizing flow dephasing. The first part of this gradient pair is applied after the initial rf pulse in the first τ1 period to dephase the tagged spins. The second part of this gradient pair is applied after the third rf pulse to rephase the spins. Since the plane of the excited slice is orthogonal to the readout direction, flowing spins are imaged in an angiographic manner as they move away from the excited slice. A modification to this basic sequence excites only a small volume. In this manner, the suppression of stationary spins is effected by volume-selective excitation. In both the planar- and the volume-selective techniques, the excited spins undergo T1 and T2 relaxation during the τ1 period but only T1 relaxation in the τ2 period. In blood, where T1 is much greater than T2, keeping τ1 as short as possible minimizes signal loss due to T2 dephasing. These methods demonstrate increased sensitivity compared to similar bolus tracking methods using either spin echoes or gradient echoes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)203-218
Number of pages16
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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