Production of tumor necrosis factor and other cytokines by astrocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or a neurotropic virus

A. P. Lieberman, P. M. Pitha, H. S. Shin, M. L. Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Rat astrocytes, immunologically competent glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS), released a variety of cytokines after activation. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated astrocytes produced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as demonstrated by Northern blot analysis using a mouse TNF probe and by functional assay. Biological activity of rat astrocyte-derived TNF was neutralized by rabbit antiserum against recombinant murine TNF. Stimulation of astrocytes by lipopolysaccharide also activated the interleukin 1 and interleukin 6 genes. We have also investigated whether a neurotropic paramyxovirus, Newcastle disease virus, triggers cytokine production by astrocytes. This virus induced astrocytes to produce TNF, lymphotoxin, interleukin 6, and α- and β-interferons. Thus, stimulation by endotoxin and virus activated distinct, yet overlapping, sets of cytokine genes. We propose that astrocytes and the cytokines they produce may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of immunologically and/or virally mediated CNS disease, in CNS intercellular communication, and in the interactions between the nervous and immune systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6348-6352
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume86
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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