Process examination of executive function in ADHD: Sex and subtype effects

Ericka L. Wodka, Stewart H. Mostofsky, Cristine Prahme, Jennifer C. Gidley Larson, Christopher Loftis, Martha B. Denckla, E. Mark Mahone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


To examine effects of group (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder [ADHD] versus Typically Developing [TD]), sex, and ADHD subtype on "process/optional" measures of executive functioning, children (n = 123; 54 ADHD, 69 TD) aged 8-16 completed subtests from the D-KEFS. No group, sex, or ADHD subtype effects were found on optional measures from the Trail Making, Color-Word Interference, and Tower tests. A significant interaction was found for Verbal Fluency Total Repetition Errors; boys with Combined/ Hyperactive-Impulsive (ADHD-C/HI) type ADHD performed better than ADHD-C/HI girls, whereas girls with Inattentive type ADHD (ADHD-I) performed better than ADHD-I boys. Overall, children with ADHD did not differ from TD on most optional measures from the D-KEFS. When sex and ADHD subtype were considered, children with the subtype of ADHD less common for sex were at greater risk for poorer performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)826-841
Number of pages16
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2007


  • ADHD
  • D-KEFS
  • Executive function
  • Process approach

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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