Principle and history of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES)

Samuel A. Giday, Sergey V. Kantsevoy, Anthony N. Kalloo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

79 Scopus citations


The field of gastrointestinal endoscopy has been witnessing major advances over the last five decades. Developing from flexible endoscopy to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the 1950's and 70's to endoscopic ultrasound in the 80's, endoscopic technology has been transformed from serving purely diagnostic purposes to therapeutic applications. One recent major advance is the notion of using the flexible endoscope, taking it beyond the gastrointestinal lumen into what lies beyond the confines of the gastrointestinal tract. Natural orifice translumenal surgery offers the exciting potential to be safer, less invasive and possibly more cost-effective than the traditional open surgical or laparoscopic approach. The history and principles of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), along with future implications, are outlined in this article.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)373-377
Number of pages5
JournalMinimally Invasive Therapy and Allied Technologies
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2006


  • Natural orifice surgery
  • Transgastric surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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