Prevalence of steatotic liver disease, MASLD, MetALD and significant fibrosis in people with HIV in the United States

Samer Gawrieh, Eduardo Vilar-Gomez, Tinsay A. Woreta, Jordan E. Lake, Laura A. Wilson, Jennifer C. Price, Susanna Naggie, Richard K. Sterling, Sonya Heath, Kathleen E. Corey, Edward R. Cachay, Veeral Ajmera, James Tonascia, Mark S. Sulkowski, Naga Chalasani, Rohit Loomba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) has recently been proposed as a replacement term for NAFLD. Aims: To assess the effects of this new nomenclature on the prevalence and distribution of different SLD categories in people with HIV (PWH) and identified factors associated with MASLD and clinically significant fibrosis (CSF). Methods: PWH were prospectively enrolled from 9 US centres and underwent clinical evaluation and vibration-controlled transient elastography for controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM). SLD was defined as CAP ≥ 263 dB/m, CSF as LSM of ≥8 kPa, and advanced fibrosis (AF) as LSM ≥ 12 kPa. The prevalence of SLD, MASLD, metabolic dysfunction and alcohol-associated liver disease (MetALD), ALD, cryptogenic (cSLD), CSF and AF were determined. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with MASLD and CSF risk. Results: Of 1065 participants, 74% were male, mean (SD) age 51.6 ± 11.9 years, 46% non-Hispanic Black and 74% with undetectable HIV RNA. The prevalence of SLD was 52%, MASLD 39%, MetALD 10%, ALD 3%, CSF 15% and AF 4%. Only 0.6% had cSLD. Black race was protective whereas obesity, ALT and AST levels were associated with increased risk of MASLD and CSF in MASLD. HIV or antiretroviral therapy did not affect MASLD risk. Conclusions: MASLD and MetALD are the dominant causes of SLD in PWH, affecting almost half. Application of the new nomenclature resulted in minimal change in the proportion of patients with MASLD who would have been diagnosed previously with NAFLD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)666-679
Number of pages14
JournalAlimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • CAP
  • cirrhosis
  • fibrosis
  • metALD
  • prevalence
  • stiffness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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