Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sperm within post-ejaculatory urine in both fertile and infertile men. Methods: Fifteen men of proven fertility and 66 non-azoospermic men being evaluated for infertility were recruited in two academic centers. Laboratory studies included a semen analysis and the examination of post-ejaculate urine for the presence and concentration of sperm. Results: The median total urine sperm count for the fertile group (26.6 million) was not significantly greater than the infertile group (8.3 million, P = 0.63). The median percentage of total sperm (urine plus semen) present in urine for the fertile group (14.8%) was not different from that in the infertile group (15.3%, P = 0.36). Sperm were found in the urine of 73% of fertile and 65% of infertile patients (P = 0.54). Conclusions: The prevalence of sperm in the post-ejaculatory urine in the fertile population is similar to that in infertile patients, which suggests that a great deal more information is needed to interpret this test in the management of these patients.
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