Prevalence of incomplete functional and symptomatic recovery among patients with head injury but brain injury debatable

Frederick K. Korley, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Hayley J. Falk, Matthew E. Peters, Jeannie Marie S. Leoutsakos, Durga Roy, Vani Rao, Haris Iqbal Sair, Uju Ofoche, Anna J. Hall, Freshta Akbari, Timothy E. Van Meter, Allen D. Everett, Jennifer E. Van Eyk, Kathleen T. Bechtold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Head injury patients not meeting the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM)'s criteria for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), referred to hereafter as HIBRID (Head Injury BRain Injury Debatable), are often excluded from studies. The prognostic importance of HIBRID is unclear. We investigated the differences in functional and symptomatic recovery at 1 month post-injury among TBI patients classified as: HIBRID, ACRM+ cranial computed tomography (CT)-, and cranial CT+; and trauma and healthy controls. Subjects were enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort (Head Injury Serum Markers for Assessing Response to Trauma; HeadSMART). Outcomes measured at 1 month post-injury include: incomplete functional recovery (Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended <8); moderate/severe post-concussive symptoms (PCS), defined according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision definition; and moderate/severe depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire 9 ≥ 10). Between April 2014 and May 2016, 500 TBI and 100 control subjects were enrolled and 376 TBI and 78 control subjects completed outcome assessment. The HIBRID group, constituting 23.9% of study population, had a lower incidence of incomplete functional recovery (36.7% [33 of 90]) than ACRM+, CT- (60.7% [125 of 206]; p < 0.01) and CT+ (78.8% [63 of 80]; p < 0.01) groups. However, the incidence of delayed functional recovery within the HIBRID group was higher than in trauma (9.3% [5 of 54]; p < 0.01) and healthy controls (0% [0 of 24]; p < 0.01). Compared to trauma/healthy controls, the HIBRID group had a higher incidence of moderate/severe depressive symptoms and a similar incidence of moderate/severe PCS. Subjects in the HIBRID group are at high risk for adverse outcomes following head injury and warrant further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1531-1538
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of neurotrauma
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 15 2017


  • head trauma
  • human studies
  • outcomes
  • prospective study
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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