Purpose The prevalence of homologous recombination DNA damage repair (HR-DDR) deficiencies among all tumor lineages is not well characterized. Therapy directed toward homologous recombination DDR deficiency (HRD) is now approved in ovarian and breast cancer, and there may be additional opportunities for benefit for patients with other cancers. Comprehensive evaluations for HRD are limited in part by the lack of a uniform, cost-effective method for testing and defining HRD. Methods Molecular profiles of 52,426 tumors were reviewed to identify pathogenic mutations in the HR-DDR genes ARID1A, ATM, ATRX, BAP1, BARD1, BLM, BRCA1/2, BRIP1, CHEK1/2, FANCA/C/D2/E/F/G/L, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51, RAD51B, or WRN. From solid tumors submitted to Caris Life Sciences, molecular profiles were generated using next-generation sequencing (NGS; average read depth, 500×). A total of 17,566 tumors were sequenced with NGS600 (n = 592 genes), and 34,860 tumors underwent hotspot Illumina MiSeq platform testing (n = 47 genes). Results Of the tumors that underwent NGS600 testing, the overall frequency of HRDDR mutations detected was 17.4%, and the most commonly mutated lineages were endometrial (34.4%; n = 1,475), biliary tract (28.9%; n = 343), bladder (23.9%; n = 201), hepatocellular (20.9%; n = 115), gastroesophageal (20.8%; n = 619), and ovarian (20.0%; n = 2,489). Least commonly mutated lineages included GI stromal (3.7%; n = 108), head and neck (6.8%; n = 206), and sarcoma (9.3%; n = 592). ARID1A was the most commonly mutated gene (7.2%), followed by BRCA2 (3.0%), BRCA1 (2.8%), ATM (1.3%), ATRX (1.3%), and CHEK2 (1.3%). Conclusions HR-DDR mutations were seen in 17.4% of tumors across 21 cancer lineages, providing a path to explore the role of HRD-directed therapies, including poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors, DNA-damaging chemotherapies, and newer agents such as ATR inhibitors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research