Prevalence and incidence of HIV among incarcerated and reincarcerated women in Rhode Island

Josiah D. Rich, Brian P. Dickinson, Grace Macalino, Timothy P. Flanigan, Christopher W. Towe, Anne Spaulding, David Vlahov

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    43 Scopus citations


    This study explores recent temporal trends in HIV prevalence among women entering prison and the incidence and associated risk factors among women reincarcerated in Rhode Island. Results from mandatory HIV testing from 1992 to 1996 for all incarcerated women were examined. In addition, a case control study was conducted on all seroconverters from 1989 to 1997. In all, 5836 HIV tests were performed on incarceration in 3146 women, 105 of whom tested positive (prevalence, 3.3%). Between 1992 and 1996, the annual prevalence of HIV among all women known to be HIV-positive was stable (p = .12). Age >25 years, nonwhite race, and prior incarceration were associated with seropositivity. Of 1081 initially seronegative women who were retested on reincarceration, 12 seroconverted during 1885 person-years (PY) of follow-up (incidence, 0.6/100 PY). Self-reported injection drug use (IDU; odds ratio [OR], 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-10.1) was significantly associated with seroconversion, but sexual risk was not (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-3.5). Incarceration serves as an opportunity for initiation of treatment and linkage to community services for a population that is at high risk for HIV infection.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)161-166
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
    Issue number2
    StatePublished - Oct 1 1999


    • AIDS serodiagnosis
    • HIV seropositivity
    • HIV seroprevalence
    • HIV- 1
    • Incidence
    • Mandatory testing
    • Mass screening
    • Prisoners
    • Prostitution
    • Rhode Island
    • Risk factors
    • Sex behavior
    • Sexually transmitted diseases
    • Substance abuse, intravenous

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Immunology and Allergy
    • Immunology
    • Virology


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