Prevalence and determinants of elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase in Chinese hypertensive adults

Xiaotao Zhao, Xianhui Qin, Yan Zhang, Jianping Li, Binyan Wang, Xiaobin Wang, Xin Xu, Xiping Xu, Xinchun Yang, Yong Huo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: This study aims to examine the prevalence and determinants of elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45-75 years. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in the rural area of Lianyungang, Jiangsu provinces, China. A total of 14206 adults with hypertension (5602 men, age 59.5 ± 7.6 years) from two counties were analyzed. Elevated GGT was defined as a GGT level ≥50 IU/L. Results: The prevalence of elevated GGT was 8.59% (2.8% in women and 17.6% in men). Median GGT level was 20.2 IU/L (17.6 IU/L in women and 26.4 IU/L in men). In multiple logistic-regression analyses, women had lower risk for elevated GGT than men (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.24-0.36), abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm; OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20-1.67), obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2; OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.44-1.98), current drinking (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 3.04-4.21) were important independent risk factors for elevated GGT in both genders. Age and physical activity levels were inversely associated with elevated GGT. In sex-subgroup analyses, antihypertensive treatment (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.98) and inland (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93) had lower risk and red meat consumption ≥3 times (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19-1.83) and elementary or higher levels (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06-1.55) had high risk for elevated GGT in men but not in women. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of elevated GGT in Chinese hypertensive adults, a high prevalence of elevated GGT in male participants from coastal (vs. inland) areas. Physical activity is necessary to decrease GGT level. A detrimentally effect of current drinking, obesity or waist circumference on the GGT levels was also observed in both gender and a detrimentally effect of greater red meat consumption only in male was observed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberIJCEM0025499
Pages (from-to)1725-1732
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 30 2017


  • Chinese hypertensive adults
  • Determinants
  • Elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase
  • Prevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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