BACKGROUND: Posttransplant malignancy is a major cause of death in orthotopic heart transplant recipients. Our study objective is to identify whether pretransplant malignancy increases the risk for posttransplant malignancy. METHODS: Using the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing database, adult (≥18 years old) recipients of a primary orthotopic heart transplant performed between 2000 and 2012 were included. The cohort was stratified according to the presence and type of pretransplant malignancy. Outcomes were posttransplant overall, skin, solid malignancies, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Incidence of and time to first posttransplant malignancy, accounting for death as a competing event, were calculated. Fine and Gray competing risks regression was performed to examine risk factors associated with posttransplant malignancy. RESULTS: Of 23,171 recipients, overall posttransplant malignancy was diagnosed in 2673 recipients (11.5%).The median time to overall, skin, solid posttransplant malignancies, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder were 3.2 (1.6-5.7), 3.2 (1.7-5.6), 3.5 (1.7-5.9), and 2.5 years(0.8-5.2), respectively. Pretransplant malignancy increased the risk of posttransplant overall (subhazard ratio [SHR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.27-1.81), skin (SHR, 1.55, 95% CI, 1.23-1.93), and solid organ malignancies (SHR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.13-2.11). Pretransplant skin malignancy increased the risk of posttransplant skin malignancy (SHR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.82-4.28). Pretransplant solid malignancy also increased the risk of posttransplant skin malignancy (SHR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.07-2.25) but not of posttransplant solid tumors (SHR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.69-2.19). Older, male, and white were also risk factors for posttransplant malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: A history of any pretransplant malignancy was associated with increased risks of skin and solid malignancies after transplantation. The specific type of posttransplant malignancy risk differed according to the type of pretransplant malignancy.
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