Preservation of KIT genotype in a novel pair of patient-derived orthotopic xenograft mouse models of metastatic pediatric CNS germinoma

Holly Lindsay, Yulun Huang, Yuchen Du, Frank K. Braun, Wan Yee Teo, Mari Kogiso, Lin Qi, Huiyuan Zhang, Sibo Zhao, Hua Mao, Frank Lin, Patricia Baxter, Jack M. Su, Keita Terashima, Laszlo Perlaky, Murali Chintagumpala, Adekunle Adesina, Ching C. Lau, D. Williams Parsons, Xiao Nan Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Metastatic intracranial germinoma is difficult to treat. Although the proto-oncogene KIT is recognized as one of the most frequent genetic abnormalities in CNS germinoma, the development of new target therapeutic agents for CNS germinoma is hampered by the lack of clinically-relevant animal models that replicate the mutated or over-expressed KIT. CNS germinoma tumor cells from five pediatric patients were directly implanted into the brains of Rag2/severe combined immune deficiency mice. Once established, the xenograft tumors were sub-transplanted in vivo in mouse brains. Characterization of xenograft tumors were performed through histologic and immunohistochemical staining, and KIT mutation analysed with quantitative pyro-sequencing. Expression of putative cancer stem cell markers (CD133, CD15, CD24, CD44, CD49f) was analyzed through flow cytometry. Two patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) models (IC-6999GCT and IC-9302GCT) were established from metastatic germinoma and serially sub-transplanted five times in mouse brains. Similar to the original patient tumors, they both exhibited faint expression (+) of PLAP, no expression (−) of β-HCG and strong (+++) expression of KIT. KIT mutation (D816H), however, was only found in IC-9320GCT. This mutation was maintained during the five in vivo tumor passages with an increased mutant allele frequency compared to the patient tumor. Expression of putative cancer stem cell markers CD49f and CD15 was also detected in a small population of tumor cells in both models. This new pair of PDOX models replicated the key biological features of pediatric intracranial germinoma and should facilitate the biological and pre-clinical studies for metastatic intracranial germinomas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-56
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of neuro-oncology
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 2016


  • Germinoma
  • KIT
  • Mouse models
  • Pediatric
  • Xenograft

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cancer Research


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