Preoperative and Intraoperative Predictive Factors of Immediate Extubation After Neonatal Cardiac Surgery

Joby Varghese, Shelby Kutty, Ibrahim Abdullah, Sandra Hall, Valerie Shostrom, James M. Hammel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Background We sought to identify preoperative and intraoperative predictors of immediate extubation (IE) after open heart surgery in neonates. The effect of IE on the postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), cost of postoperative ICU care, operating room turnover, and reintubation rates was assessed. Methods Patients younger than 31 days who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (January 2010 to December 2013) at a tertiary-care children's hospital were studied. Immediate extubation was defined as successful extubation before termination of anesthetic care. Data on preoperative and intraoperative variables were compared using descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate statistics to identify the predictors of IE. Propensity scores were used to assess effects of IE on ICU LOS, the cost of ICU care, reintubation rates, and operating room turnover time. Results One hundred forty-eight procedures done at a median age of 7 days resulted in 45 IEs (30.4%). The IE rate was 22.2% with single-ventricle heart disease. Independent predictors of IE were the absence of the need for preoperative ventilatory assistance, higher gestational age, anesthesiologist, and shorter cardiopulmonary bypass. Immediate extubation was associated with shorter ICU LOS (8.3 versus 12.7 days; p < 0.0001) and lower cost of ICU care (mean postoperative ICU charges, $157,449 versus $198,197; p < 0.0001) with no significant difference in the probability of reintubation (p = 0.7). Immediate extubation was associated with longer operating room turnover time (38.4 versus 46.7 minutes; p = 0.009). Conclusions Immediate extubation was accomplished in 30.4% of neonates undergoing open heart surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass. Immediate extubation was associated with lesser ICU LOS, postoperative ICU costs, and minimal increase in operating room turnover time, but without an increase in reintubation rates. Low gestational age, preoperative ventilatory support requirement, and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time were inversely associated with the ability to accomplish IE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1588-1595
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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