Pregnancy and live birth from nonsurgical transfer of in vivo- and in vitro-produced blastocysts in the rhesus monkey

M. J. Wolfgang, S. G. Eisele, L. Knowles, M. A. Browne, M. L. Schotzko, T. G. Golos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Embryo transfer in the rhesus monkey has been historically limited to transfer of cleavage stage embryos. In order to allow genetic manipulation of rhesus embryos in vitro, without using invasive surgical techniques, it is important to explore the transfer of morula and blastocyst stage embryos. Embryos were produced by in vitro fertilization from gonadotropin-stimulated monkeys, or were obtained by nonsurgical uterine flushing of naturally mated or artificially inseminated females. Nonsurgical transfer was accomplished by inserting a metal guide through the cervix into the uterus, after which a hollow cell sampler was inserted over the guide. The guide was removed and a catheter was inserted containing one to five embryos. Several pregnancies resulted from in vitro- and in vivo-derived blastocysts, and two pregnancies were carried to term resulting in one live birth. Blood samples were collected regularly to monitor plasma levels of chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone. The recipients received progesterone as a subcutaneous implant or daily injections from the day of transfer. The approach described in this study provides the opportunity to explore transgenic and chimeric models in the monkey by the development of noninvasive methods to transfer late-stage embryos that have been manipulated in vitro.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)148-155
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of medical primatology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Chorionic gonadotropin
  • Implantation
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Primate
  • Progesterone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • General Veterinary


Dive into the research topics of 'Pregnancy and live birth from nonsurgical transfer of in vivo- and in vitro-produced blastocysts in the rhesus monkey'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this