Predictors of HIV-1 disease progression in early-and late-stage patients: The U.S. Army natural history cohort

Military Medical Consortium for Applied Retrovirology

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


HIV-infected individuals in both early and late stages of HIV disease were evaluated over 2 years to assess temporal trends and determinants of disease progression. The Walter Reed (WR) staging system was used to categorize patients into an early-stage cohort (WR Stages 1 and 2, N = 1183) and a latestage cohort (WR Stage 5, N = 260) based on the initial clinical evaluation. Progression was defined as the occurrence of Stage 5 disease or beyond for the early cohort and Stage 6 disease or beyond for the late cohort. The cumulative incidence of progression was 15.7%(137 events) for the early- stage cohort, and 53.7% (85 events) for the late-stage cohort. Baseline CD4 + T lymphocyte (T4) count was the most significant marker of progression: 26% of WR Stage 1 or 2 patients with T4 lymphocytes below 500/mm3 progressed, compared with 12% with T4 lymphocytes at or above 500/mm3. In late-stage individuals, 83% with T4 lymphocytes under 200/mm3 progressed, compared with 27% with T4 lymphocytes at or above 200/mm3. Older age was associated with progression in both early- and late-stage groups. Differences in the rates of disease progression were not significant between blacks and whites or between men and women. Two-year rates of progression among the late-stage patients dropped from 78 to 47% between 1986 and 1988. This contrasted with progression rates in the early-stage cohort, which remained stable: 18% for those entering follow-up in 1986 and 17% for those entering follow-up in 1988. These data indicate a significant slowing of HIV disease progression rates and mortality rates among individuals with late-stage disease that is temporally associated with the increased availability and use of therapies. With control of T4 lymphocyte count, age, and calendar time, neither gender nor race was significantly associated with progression in either early- or late stage patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)782-793
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • Gender
  • HIV-1
  • HIV-1 disease progression
  • Natural history
  • Race
  • Temporal trend

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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