Predictors and Consequences of Multiple Persistent Postmastectomy Pains

Ian Kudel, Robert R. Edwards, Sharon Kozachik, Brian M. Block, Shefali Agarwal, Leslie J. Heinberg, Jennifer Haythornthwaite, Srinivasa N. Raja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


Persistent postmastectomy pain is quite common and has been classified into several distinct types. Few studies, however, have investigated either the predictors or functional impact of multiple types of post mastectomy pain. In this investigation, 278 women, who were, on average, several years post mastectomy, completed questionnaires assessing pain, pain-related physical function, and psychosocial distress. We assessed three distinct categories of postmastectomy pain: phantom breast pain, scar pain, and other mastectomy-related pain. Each of the three types of postmastectomy pain was strongly related to one another (i.e., women reporting one type of pain were more likely to report the other types as well). In general, the more types of postmastectomy pain a woman reported, the greater the degree of disability and distress. Collectively, the presence of "other mastectomy-related pain" was a stronger unique predictor of disability and distress than were the other two categories of pain. Interestingly, demographic and surgical factors, including time since surgery, were not consistent predictors of pain or function. The findings suggest that the assessment of postmastectomy pain should include formal evaluation of multiple types of pain, with additional attention paid to the category of "other mastectomy-related pains," and that the number of types of pain reported by women after surgery may be important in predicting functional outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)619-627
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pain and Symptom Management
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2007


  • Pain
  • mastectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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