Predictive value of sleep apnea screenings in cardiac surgery patients

S. Liamsombut, R. Kaw, L. Wang, J. Bena, N. Andrews, N. Collop, T. Stierer, M. Gillinov, M. Tarler, H. Kayyali, I. Katzan, N. Foldvary-Schaefer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder associated with increased cardiovascular risks. We explored the predictive value of OSA screening instruments in cardiac disease patients awaiting cardiac surgery. Methods: In this prospective cohort, 107 participants awaiting cardiac surgery from Cleveland Clinic and Johns Hopkins underwent polysomnography after completing Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Sleep Apnea/Sleep Disorder Questionnaire (SA/SDQ), STOP, STOPBAG2 and Berlin questionnaires. Score comparisons between groups based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 were performed. Logistic regression with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to investigate optimal threshold. Results: Prevalence of OSA (AHI ≥5) was 71.9% (77/107) and 51 (47.7%) had moderate-to-severe disease (AHI ≥15). Participants were primarily male (57%) and Caucasian (76.6%). Mean age was 67.3 ± 13.3 years and BMI was 26.5 ± 6.6. Of the five screening tools, STOPBAG2 with a cut-point of 0.381 provided 78% sensitivity and 38% specificity (AUC 0.66, 95%CI 0.55–0.77). SA/SDQ yielded a cut-point of 32 for all subjects (AUC: 0.62, 95%CI 0.51–0.73) with sensitivity and specificity of 60% and 62% respectively, while STOP score ≥2 provided sensitivity and specificity of 67% and 52% respectively (AUC: 0.61, 95%CI 0.51–0.72). Among STOP items, “observed apnea” had the strongest correlation with AHI ≥15 (OR 3.67, 95%CI 1.57–8.54, p = 0.003). The ESS and Berlin were not useful in identifying moderate-to-severe OSA. Conclusion: Common screening tools had suboptimal performance in cardiac surgery patients. STOPBAG2 was better at predicting the probability of moderate-to-severe OSA in patients undergoing cardiac surgery compared to ESS, SA/SDQ, STOP and Berlin questionnaires.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20-25
Number of pages6
JournalSleep Medicine
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Berlin questionnaire
  • Cardiothoracic or cardiac surgery
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • SA/SDQ
  • STOP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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