Predicting Failure of Non-Invasive Ventilation With RAM Cannula in Bronchiolitis

Mia Maamari, Gustavo Nino, James Bost, Yao Cheng, Anthony Sochet, Matthew Sharron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: In infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis on non-invasive ventilation (NIV) via the RAM cannula nasal interface, variables predicting subsequent intubation, or NIV non-response, are understudied. We sought to identify predictors of NIV non-response. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study in infants admitted for respiratory failure from bronchiolitis placed on NIV in a quaternary children’s hospital. We excluded children with concurrent sepsis, critical congenital heart disease, or with preexisting tracheostomy. The primary outcome was NIV non-response defined as intubation after a trial of NIV. Secondary outcomes were vital sign values before and after NIV initiation, duration of NIV and intubation, and mortality. Primary analyses included Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, student’s t test, paired analyses, and adjusted and unadjusted logistic regression assessing heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) before and after NIV initiation. Results: Of 138 infants studied, 34% were non-responders. There were no differences in baseline characteristics of responders and non-responders. HR decreased after NIV initiation in responders (156 [143-156] to149 [141-158], p < 0.01) compared to non-responders (158 [149-166] to 158 [145-171], p = 0.73). RR decreased in responders (50 [43-58] vs 47 [41-54]) and non-responders (52 [48-58] vs 51 [40-55], both p < 0.01). Concurrent bacterial pneumonia (OR 6.06, 95% CI: 2.54-14.51) and persistently elevated HR (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07) were associated with NIV non-response. Conclusion: In children with acute bronchiolitis who fail to respond to NIV and require subsequent intubation, we noted associations with persistently elevated HR after NIV initiation and concurrent bacterial pneumonia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)120-127
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Intensive Care Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • bronchiolitis
  • intubation
  • noninvasive ventilation
  • physiological variability
  • pneumonia
  • respiratory insufficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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