Precision medicine to prevent glaucoma-related blindness

Sayoko E. Moroi, David M. Reed, David S. Sanders, Ahmed Almazroa, Lawrence Kagemann, Neil Shah, Nakul Shekhawat, Julia E. Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Purpose of review Approximately 10% of patients become blind despite using evidence-based guidelines developed from clinical trials and epidemiology studies. Our purpose is to review opportunities to decrease glaucomarelated blindness using the emerging principles of precision medicine. Recent findings The current review focuses on three topics: First, candidate biomarkers for angle-based surgeries, second, head-mounted display (HMD) technology for vision and testing, and third, glaucoma risk alleles discovered by genome-wide association studies. First, in angle-based surgeries, tracers injected into the anterior chamber or Schlemm's canal have allowed visualization of aqueous veins. We describe an innovative use of optical coherence tomography angiography to visualize aqueous veins in a case with 6-year successful outcome following catheter-based trabeculotomy. Second, HMD technology can augment perceived vision and can be used for perimetry testing. Third, developing genetic risk scores that characterize patients who are at highest risk for blindness is a priority. Such biomarker risk scores will integrate genome-wide association study-based risk alleles for glaucoma along with well known demographic and clinical risk factors. Summary As we gain more knowledge, precision medicine will enable clinicians to decrease glaucoma-related blindness by providing more timely interventions to those patients who are at highest risk for progression to blindness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-198
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent opinion in ophthalmology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Aqueous veins
  • Biomarkers
  • Glaucoma
  • Head-mounted display technology
  • Precision medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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