Pose-aware C-arm for automatic re-initialization of interventional 2D/3D image registration

Javad Fotouhi, Bernhard Fuerst, Alex Johnson, Sing Chun Lee, Russell Taylor, Greg Osgood, Nassir Navab, Mehran Armand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Purpose: In minimally invasive interventions assisted by C-arm imaging, there is a demand to fuse the intra-interventional 2D C-arm image with pre-interventional 3D patient data to enable surgical guidance. The commonly used intensity-based 2D/3D registration has a limited capture range and is sensitive to initialization. We propose to utilize an opto/X-ray C-arm system which allows to maintain the registration during intervention by automating the re-initialization for the 2D/3D image registration. Consequently, the surgical workflow is not disrupted and the interaction time for manual initialization is eliminated. Methods: We utilize two distinct vision-based tracking techniques to estimate the relative poses between different C-arm arrangements: (1) global tracking using fused depth information and (2) RGBD SLAM system for surgical scene tracking. A highly accurate multi-view calibration between RGBD and C-arm imaging devices is achieved using a custom-made multimodal calibration target. Results: Several in vitro studies are conducted on pelvic-femur phantom that is encased in gelatin and covered with drapes to simulate a clinically realistic scenario. The mean target registration errors (mTRE) for re-initialization using depth-only and RGB + depth are 13.23 mm and 11.81 mm, respectively. 2D/3D registration yielded 75% success rate using this automatic re-initialization, compared to a random initialization which yielded only 23% successful registration. Conclusion: The pose-aware C-arm contributes to the 2D/3D registration process by globally re-initializing the relationship of C-arm image and pre-interventional CT data. This system performs inside-out tracking, is self-contained, and does not require any external tracking devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1221-1230
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017


  • 2D/3D registration
  • C-arm
  • Initialization
  • Intra-intervention
  • RGBD camera

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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