Polymorphism in the upstream regulatory region of DQA1 genes and DRB1, QAP, DQA1, and DQB1 haplotypes in the German population

Johannes Peter Haas, Akinori Kimura, Adriane Andreas, Martina Hochberger, Elisabeth Keller, Günther Brünnler, Maria de la Paz Bettinotti, Claudia Nevinny-Stickel, Bernhard Hildebrandt, Gabriele Sierp, Takehiko Sasazuki, Ekkehard Albert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Polymorphism in the URR of the MHC class II DQA1 gene defines ten different alleles named QAP. Oligotyping for the alleles of DRB1, QAP, DQA1, and DQB1 have been performed in 210 unrelated healthy controls from Germany. Moreover, 83 HTCs from the Tenth IHWS have been tested. Four point loci haplotypes (DRB1, QAP, DQA1, and DQB1) have been analyzed in the unrelated healthy population sample. Computer analysis of the linkage disequilibria leads to the conclusion that QAP alleles are in strong linkage disequilibrium with alleles either the DQA1 or the DRB1 locus. One typical ("common") haplotype was found to be associated with each DRB1 allele in the majority (86%) of the tested persons. Apart from that, 25 other less frequent ("unusual") haplotypes, with an overall frequency of 14% have been defined. Some of these "unusual" MHC class II haplotypes were found to differ only in the regulatory alleles of DQA1 (QAP alleles) while they are identical for the alleles coding for structural elements (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1). Most of the "unusual" haplotypes were found to carry HLA-DQ6. Assuming that "unusual" (= rare) haplotypes have arisen from "common" (= frequent) haplotypes by point mutation and recombination, we propose the existence of three recombination sites in the MHC DR-DQ region: one between DRB1 and QAP, the second between QAP and DQA1, and the third between DQA1 and DQB1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)31-40
Number of pages10
JournalHuman Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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